By Fredrick J. Long
Pauline scholarship has normally interpreted 2 Corinthians as a later editorial composite of numerous letters. Fredrick lengthy situates the textual content inside Classical literary and rhetorical conventions and argues for its harmony dependent upon a number of parallels with historic apology within the culture of Andocides, Socrates, Isocrates and Demosthenes. He presents a complete survey and rigorous style research of old forensic discourse in aid of his claims, and demonstrates how the unified message of Paul's letter could be recovered.
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Extra resources for Ancient Rhetoric and Paul's Apology: The Compositional Unity of 2 Corinthians (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series)
Are they some of the Corinthians and/or Paul’s missionary rivals? The second issue concerns how Paul addressed this exigence. What manner or means did Paul employ? Is he thoroughly parodic? To what extent is he truly apologetic by drawing on the forensic tradition? The third issue is the method and manner by which 2 Corinthians can be shown to be a unity. Should we emphasize invention, argumentation, style and figures, genre, or disposition? My view is that actual charges were issued by real opponents from within and without and that the best method to demonstrate the unity of 2 Corinthians is historical rhetoric working with generic features of ancient apology.
27, 260). Significantly, two other branches of oratory developed in Athens at this time: epideictic oratory in the form of ceremonial speeches offered during the Persian War and deliberative oratory in 17 18 A survey of ancient forensic discourse the form of political speeches within the context of the renewed Athenian democracy (see Usher, 1990, pp. 1–2). For my purposes, there is ample information to study the form and character of forensic rhetoric through extant Greco-Roman handbooks, speeches, letters, and educational exercises.
Furthermore, Quintilian (Inst. 28–30) relates that often the declaimers followed the school rhetorical training too rigidly, and thus always included a statement of facts after the exordium. Such a statement attests to the continued importance of speech disposition. Kennedy (1997, pp. , Gorgias, Isocrates). Concerning the progymnasmata, Aelius Theon (Prog. 144–153; trans. Butts, 1986) argues that the final stages of instruction consisted in the imitation of complete orations and an understanding of their construction: Consequently, just as one may introduce these exercises to the mind of the young students, it is necessary, in the same way, that what follows be in agreement.