By Pramod R. Bhave

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**Extra resources for Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks**

**Example text**

Flamant first attributed the formula to Manning in 1891. , introduced the expression "Manning's A7" in literature in 1916. This was rather an ironic development as Manning had clearly rejected the use of the coefficient N [51]. The present formula is known in different parts of the world under various names such as the Gauckler formula, Hagen formula, Strickler formula or Manning formula. However, Hagen derived the formula only for the Ganga canal, and the formula was well established by the time of Strickler's 1923 paper.

18) SwameeJain Jain Eq. 19) Eq. 20) ZigrangSylvester Eq. 23) Haaland Chen Churchill Eq. 24) Eq. 25) Eq. S. Williams and A. 27) in which V = average velocity of flow in m/s; CHW = Hazen-Williams (HW) coefficient; R = hydraulic radius ( = AIP) in m; and 5 = slope of the energy line ( = hf/L). For circular pipes V = AQI-KD2; and R = D/4. 68 LQl h f = in which L and D are in meters and Q in cubic meters per second. In practice, the pipe diameter D may also be given in millimeters or centimeters and the discharge Q in liters per minute, million liters per day and several other units.

1 DETERMINATION OF HEAD LOSS Here Q, L, D, the fluid and therefore the kinematic viscosity v, and the pipe material and therefore e, are known, and hf is unknown. Therefore, using the known parameters, the Reynolds number Re and relative roughness elD are determined. Using one of the explicit formulas, the coefficient of friction/is determined. 6), the head loss h, is determined. 008 Pa • s) flows through a 100-mm diameter, 5-km long pipeline at a rate of 5 m3/h. Find the head loss due to friction.