By Patrick Saint-Dizier
This booklet is an advent to Prolog (£rQgramming in ~ic). It provides the elemental foundations of Prolog and simple and basic programming equipment. This ebook is written for programmers accustomed to different programming languages, in addition to for newbies in laptop technological know-how, prepared to have an unique advent to programming. The strategy followed during this ebook is therefore in keeping with methodological parts including a few pragmatic elements. The publication consists of 2 elements. within the fIrst half the main features of programming in Prolog are provided step-by-step. every one new point is illustrated through brief examples and routines. the second one half consists of extra built examples, that are frequently video games, that illustrate significant elements of man-made intelligence. extra complicated books are given within the bibliography and should let the reader to deepen his or her comprehend ledge of Prolog. Prolog was once first designed in France at OJ.A., Marseille, with a particular syntax. we have now followed right here a extra universal notation, outlined at Edinburgh, which has a tendency to be an implicit norm. on the finish of every bankruptcy of the 1st half, there are routines that the reader is invited to do and to check on his or her desktop. whole solutions are given in Appendix A, on the finish of the book.
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Child-of(sylvia,julie). child:of(sylvia,john). child_of(max,catherine). Suppose that to the facts shown above we now wish to add the relation grandparent(X, V). which states that X is a grandparent of Y. This can be done in two ways: by creating a new set of facts or by defining a rule. It is possible to create new facts yourself from the child_of facts given above by working out the grandparent -+ parent -+ child relation, or conversely, the child -+ parent -+ grandparent relation. We can thus create the following new set of facts to add to the preceding ones: Expressing Rules 21 grandparent(edith,julie).
This call is described as Level 3. Level 3: clause number 1: path(X,Y) :- arc(X;Y). unification with the call path(c,d) :- arc(c,d). ~ SUCCESS Now that the call at level 3 is proved, it follows that the recursive call at level 2 is also proved since there are no other conditions left to prove. In the same way, and for the same reasons, the recursive call at level 1 is proved by the successful proof of the call 1- path(a,d). The series of recursive calls is terminated; since there are no literals in the preceding calls awaiting execution after this call, it follows that the entire question has been answered.
The general form of a rule is the following: a( ••• ) :- b( ••• ), c( ••• ), ••• , z( ••• ). This rule can be paraphrased as a(••• ) is true if and only if b( •••), c( ••• ), ••• , z( ••• ). is true. Here we represent arguments by ( ••• ) to indicate that they may be of any nature and number. a( ••• ) is called the head of the rule and b( ••• ), c( ••• ), ••• , z(••• ). constitutes the body of the rule. At a syntactic level, a rule is called a clause. The body is also called the constraints or the conditions.