By Kenneth Krohn, John L. Rhodes, Michael A. Arbib

The booklet is an built-in exposition of the algebraic, and particularly semigroup-theoretic, method of machines and languages. it really is designed to hold the reader from the common concept the entire method to hitherto unpublished study effects.

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Extra resources for Algebraic Theory of Machines, Languages and Semigroups

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A good case to show the diYculties and subtle judgements involved is again provided by the treatment of the inWnitivals in English. g. Whom I believe to be a liar) were already grammatical in Old English and that after some ‘reXective’ verbs (verbs of mental perception, such as ‘know’, ‘believe’, ‘consider’) ECMs were ‘marginally grammatical’ (Miller 2002: 172–5). Miller’s evidence for their grammaticality comes exclusively from texts closely dependent on Latin (such as the translation of Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum [‘Ecclesiastical History of the English people’], the translation of the Benedictine Rule, the glosses added to the Latin grammar of Ælfric) and is crucially based on the fact that Old English allowed ‘small clause’ constructions with these verbs, that is constructions of the type I believe him a liar.

This motivation may be related to the linguistic system or it may involve social accommodation due to speaker contact. According to Milroy (1992: 200–5), whose work concentrates on sound change, most innovations are due to speaker contact via what he calls ‘weak links’, and they involve speaker identity and community norms. Hence they are motivated socially. 2, phonetic elements are not ‘meaningful’ in the way morphosyntactic elements are. 22 Lexical and phonetic diVerences are therefore more likely to function as accent or dialect markers than syntactic diVerences, and hence are more likely to be motivated socially.

25 object—(14b) has no subject and in (14c) the subject is already in preverbal position—and hence the TEP does not apply (for more details on this case, see Fischer and van der Leek 1983, 1987; Allen 1986; MacMahon 1994: 129–37). Thus, when one takes a more careful look at the actual data, it is quite possible that the change concerning the impersonals does not so much represent a case of reanalysis as one of loss of some of the variant constructions. This seems to be true not only for the history of English but also for other languages which had impersonal variants such as the ones illustrated in (14), such as Middle Dutch (cf.

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