By Hester R.E., Harrison R.M. (eds.)

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1979, 5, 93. R. Gachier and D. J. Furrer, Schweizer. Z. , 1972, 34, 41. W. P. D. Stewart, E. May and S. B. Tuckwell, Tech. , MAFF, 1973, 32, 276. R. P. Troake, L. E. Troake and D. E. Walling, Tech. , MAFF, 1973, 32, 340. Eutrophication of Natural Waters and Toxic Algal Blooms however, is the fact that almost all of the increase arrived in solution, meaning that the readily available nutrient fraction increased over the same period by almost 14-fold. Against the background of palaeolimnological studies carried out on this lake, it was also possible to judge that there had been a slow enrichment of the lake following the Iron Age and later forest clearance, pastoral farming, human settlement and quarrying.

White, E. G. Bellinger, A. J. Saul, M. Symes and K. Hendry, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 1993, p. 330.  There remains an urgent need to quantify and model these rapid, oxic cycles of biologically available phosphorus. There is a further complication in shallow lakes containing macrophytes (aquatic flowering plants, pteridophytes, and macroalgae). These take up and accumulate nutrients from the water and from the aquatic ‘soil’ in which they are rooted (sediment). Although these plants are sometimes classed as nuisance weeds, they nevertheless act as an important alternative sink for nutrients which are denied to the plankton.

The iron-bound fraction is often the largest fraction, but it is occluded within Fe> matrices and is not available for uptake until redox gradients reduce Fe> to Fe>. This is the form of phosphorus which comes into solution in the anoxic deep water of eutrophic lakes in summer. Phosphorus bound to oxides and clay minerals is also scarcely available to algae except at high pH or when they produce phosphatases. The last two forms shown in Table 3 are effectively unavailable. Thus, a portion of the TP estimation is never available to contemporary organisms and much of the remainder can be ignored from day-to-day budgets, but the redox- and pH-sensitive fractions remain part of the potential fertility of a given water.

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