By Shirley A. Hill

In the context of starting to be range, Shirley A. Hill examines the paintings mom and dad do in elevating their young children. in keeping with interviews and survey info, African American Children contains blacks of varied social periods in addition to a comparative pattern of whites. It covers significant components of kid socialization: educating values, self-discipline techniques, gender socialization, racial socialization, prolonged households -- displaying how either race and sophistication make a distinction, and emphasizing styles that problem current learn that perspectives black households as a monolithic team.

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Black w o m e n have m o r e babies than white w o m e n in their early reproductive years, but they have fewer in the later reproductive years. Overall rates o f childlessness are also similar: In 1 9 9 4 , nearly 4 3 % o f white w o m e n in their childbearing years ( 1 5 to 4 4 years old) had never given birth, c o m p a r e d with 3 7 % o f black w o m e n (Bachu, 1 9 9 5 ) . M a n y o f the liberal scholars o f the 1 9 5 0 s and 1 9 6 0 s w h o argued that racial integration and equal opportunity were the keys to creating strong, stable African American families were silenced by the rise in nonmarital pregnancy, single-parent households, crime, and poverty in the post-civil rights era.

W h i t e Americans did not see parenting as important w o r k in black families; rather, they were quite concerned about the potential loss o f cheap black female and child labor. Berry ( 1 9 9 3 ) has pointed out that southern planters still owned the land and needed workers after slavery had ended, so the decision not t o w o r k was nearly impossible for African Americans. In some states, Black Codes were written to help guarantee an adequate supply o f workers and the Freemen's Bureau, seeing employment as essential to the transition from slavery to citizenship, helped enforce contracts between blacks and their white employers.

Addressing this issue, M c A d o o asserted in 1 9 9 0 that contrary to what many people seem to think, there is no such thing as "the" African-American family. African-American families are as diverse as white, Hispanic, Asian, and other families in the United States today. Black families are not all headed by single women. . Far too many black families are certainly poor, but the majority of black families are not poor. (p. 74) Despite this challenge, existing research on black children and parenting focuses largely on social problems and is skewed toward low-income families, providing little analysis o f the normal growth and development o f African American children in diverse social backgrounds.

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