By G. Thomas

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4. DERIVATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS (EQSs) Figure 1 illustrates the approach adopted for the derivation of EQSs in the UK. Available data on the toxic effects, both from laboratory studies and field observations, are critically assessed. Particular attention is paid to the experimental test method used. The lowest credible adverse effect concentration is derived from the available toxicity data. Particular emphasis is placed on chronic effects noted after long-term exposure, or exposure effects at specific sensitive life stages of the target species.

It has similar duties for sewage collection and disposal in the Sewerage Region. 3 REGULATORY PROVISIONS The activities of the Water Service Companies are regulated by a series of new and existing controls and legislation. The principal provisions are set out in the Water Act, in regulations made under the Act and in conditions contained in the operating licences. Activities which are not related to the “core” business of water and sewage treatment are generally not controlled by these regulations.

A more stringent standard for lead than in the EC Directive will require extensive investigation of possible non-compliance due to domestic plumbing materials and may necessitate water treatment remedies. The £10 billion improvement programme should remedy most of the problems by 1999 or sooner. 2 STRUCTURE OF THE NEW INDUSTRY The Water Act 1989 (HMSO 1989a) prepared the way for the privatisation of the ten regional water authorities in England and Wales which, since 1974, had been responsible for water supply and sewerage services, resource planning, river water quality, pollution control, fisheries, land drainage, flood protection and alleviation, water recreation and conservation.

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