By Thomas Leslie Willett

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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Southeastern Tepehuan (Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics)

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Consonants (1): contrastiveness So far we only have a small list of consonants, ten in all. Of course you’ll have noticed that there are several other consonants of English that haven’t yet figured in our work. Can you work out what these other consonants are? And can you work out why the existence of these consonants couldn’t have been deduced from the above exercise and its substitution frame? Intuitively, some of the ‘missing’ consonants are segments like /n/, /m/, /z/, /h/, /v/, /g/ – and others, which I’ll discuss in a moment.

Stop. Now produce a long-drawn-out ‘buzzing z’ (the phoneme /z/). Stop. Repeat the exercise, but this time, move without stopping from long-drawn-out /s/ to longdrawn-out /z/. e. does the tongue move? Do the lips move? Or not? If not, how would you account for the fact that there is definitely both a functional and an acoustic difference between /s/ and /z/? Consonants (1): contrastiveness Exercise 2d Repeat exercise 2c, but this time using the phonemes /f/ and /v/. Ask yourself the same questions.

It’s held just back of the ridge, and the air is forced through the millimetric gap there, with resulting friction. We can use precisely these features of production to help subclassify /s/ and /z/ (and so distinguish them from /f/ and /v/ and other fricatives). That is, they are alveolar fricatives. There’s another pair of consonants that is produced using the alveolar ridge as one of the articulators. ) Before we identify the relevant pair, and again using your finger, explore the upper part of the oral cavity, the part behind the alveolar ridge.

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