By Mohan Seneviratne
And trade use significant quantities of water, and in a few elements of the area water is changing into a scarce commodity. This e-book is a 'best perform' guide for water conservation for commercial and advertisement clients world-wide. It bargains a pragmatic account of the measures that are taken to re-educate business and advertisement clients within the options of water saving and re-use - anyplace on the planet.
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Additional resources for A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities
20 A Practical Approach to Water Conservation Case Study A smallgoods manufacturer in Sydney, Australia, estimated that while the water costs are only A$1 20/m3 , the actual cost of water (once internal chemical treatment, wastewater treatment and sewer discharges were included) was A$6 00/m3 – a ﬁvefold increase in costs. These costs are not easily recognisable because they come under different accounts. In addition to direct production-related costs, there are other compliance costs. For instance, in the food industry, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) requires certain procedures be followed; sim ilarly, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may require the reduction of certain substances before discharging efﬂuent to the environment.
1 Viruses Viruses are the smallest of the pathogens found in water with diameters ranging from 20 nanometers (nm = 10−9 meters) to 85 nm . In com parison a human red blood cell averages 7600 nm in diameter. The viruses associated with faeces are known as enteric viruses and are more than 100 entities. They can cause poliomyelitis, hepatitis and gastroenteritis to name a few diseases. The infectious dose can be as low as 10 viral particles or less. Many viruses are resistant to standard methods of disinfection.
Historically water prices have been set to recover the capital and operating costs as well as the associated ﬁnancial costs and dividends to share holders. Only recently have governments started using the pricing mechanism as a demand management tool to reduce consumption such as having higher tariffs for high water users. Until prices for water reﬂect its true cost, water wastage will continue. As the available resources becomes scarce, water prices will increasingly reﬂect the scarcity value of water leading to steeper prices .